2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin

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  • #2849

    Brian
    Participant

    General Description:

    Synonyms: Dioxin; Dioxine; TCDBD; TCDD; 2,3,7,8-TCDD
    OSHA IMIS Code Number: 2326
    Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 1746-01-6
    NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: HP3500000
    NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, 2,3,7,8-Tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-Dioxin: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more
    Exposure Limits
    National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): Appendix A – NIOSH Potential Occupational Carcinogens
    Health Factors
    Carcinogenic Classification:
    International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC): Group 1, carcinogenic to humans (PDF)
    National Toxicology Program (NTP): Group 1, known to be human carcinogen (PDF)
    Potential Symptoms: Eye irritation; allergic dermatitis, chloracne; porphyria; headache; weakness; gastrointestinal disturbance; possible reproductive, teratogenic effects. In animals: liver, kidney damage; hemorrhage; endometriosis; developmental neurotoxicity; immunosuppression; endocrine disturbances, reproductive problems; [potential occupational carcinogen].
    Health Effects: Known human carcinogen (HE2); Chronic toxicity—Chloracne, hyperlipidemia (HE3); Irritation-Eyes, nose, throat, skin—Moderate (HE15)
    Affected Organs: Eyes, skin, liver, kidneys, reproductive system
    Notes:
    The body burden LOAEL for chloracne has been estimated to be 160 ng/kg. A 2001 follow-up study of 12 workers who acquired TCDD-induced chloracne in the late 1960s indicated that two still had it.
    Up to 30 years or more following occupational exposure, high incidences of hyperlipidemia (cholesterol, triglycerides), ischaemic heart disease (atherosclerosis, thicker carotid wall and plaques, hypertension), and neuropsychological complaints (e.g., memory) have been reported.
    TCDD binds to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and, due to a very slow elimination in humans (half-life >7 years), this can lead to chronic activation of AhR-driven gene expression, including induction of several drug-metabolizing enzymes (e.g., CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, glutathione S-transferase, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase), which may bind TCDD (e.g., CYP 1A2) but do not metabolize it.
    Literature Basis:
    NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin.
    International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin.
    Cole, P., Trichopoulos, D., Pastides, H., Starr, T. and Mandel, J.S.: Dioxin and cancer: a critical review. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 38(3): 378-388, 2003.
    Greene, J.F., Hays, S. and Paustenbach, D.: Basis for a proposed reference dose (RfD) for dioxin of 1-10 pg/kg-day: a weight of evidence evaluation of the human and animal studies. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health B Crit. Rev. 6(2): 115-159, 2003.
    Inouye, K., Shinkyo, R., Takita, T., Ohta, M. and Sakaki, T.: Metabolism of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) by human cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase systems. J. Agric. Food Chem. 50(19): 5496-5502, 2002.
    Kakeyama, M. and Tohyama, C.: Developmental neurotoxicity of dioxin and its related compounds. Ind. Health 41(3): 215-230, 2003.
    Miller, K.P., Borgeest, C., Greenfeld, C., Tomic, D. and Flaws, J.A.: In utero effects of chemicals on reproductive tissues in females. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 198(2): 111-131, 2004.
    Pelclov√°, D., et al.: Lipid metabolism and neuropsychological follow-up study of workers exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health 75(Suppl.): S60-S66, 2002.
    Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. In, Sittig’s Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 2. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 2158-2160.
    Takemoto, K., Nakajima, M., Fujiki, Y., Katoh, Miki, Gonzalez, F.J. and Yokoi, T.: Role of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and Cyp 1b1 in the antiestrogenic activity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Arch. Toxicol. 78(6): 309-315, 2004.
    Uno, S., et al.: Cyp1a1(-/-) male mice: protection against high-dose TCDD-induced lethality and wasting syndrome, and resistance to intrahypatocyte lipid accumulation and uroporphyria. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 196(3): 410-421, 2004.
    Date Last Revised: 08/13/2004
    Monitoring Methods used by OSHA
    Primary Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method (SLC1):
    Call the Salt Lake Technical Center (SLTC) for sampling procedure.

    #5660

    Charles07
    Participant

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin which is often referred to simply as dioxin and is the reference for a number of compounds which are similar structurally and have dioxin-like toxicity. A substance extremely toxic to mammals, with a wide variation in sensitivity among species. Longer-term exposure of test mammals to lesser amounts can affect reproduction, cause birth defects, damage the liver and suppress the immune system. Several studies suggest that exposure to TCDD increases the risk of several types of cancer in people. Animal studies have also shown an increased risk of cancer from exposure to TCDD. The WHO and the USA DHHS have determined that TCDD is a human carcinogen. 

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