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    General Description

    Synonyms: Flowers of sulfur; Flour sulfur; Brimstone 

    OSHA IMIS Code Number: S101

    Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 7704-34-9 

    NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: WS4250000

    Department of Transportation Regulation Number (49 CFR 172.101) and Guide: 1350 133

    Chemical Description and Physical Properties:

    yellow fine grained powder
    molecular weight: 32.06
    molecular formula: S
    flash point: >180°C (as dust)

    Health Factors
    Potential Symptoms: Irritation of eyes, skin, throat, respiratory tract; bronchitis, cough, shortness of breath; nausea, headache; dermatitis; INGES ACUTE: Burning sensation; diarrhea. 

    Health Effects: Nuisance particulate (HE19); Chronic toxicity—Skin sensitization, permanent eye damage (HE3) 

    Affected Organs: Skin, respiratory system 


    Ingestion of a large amount of elemental sulfur may result in production of hydrogen sulfide by intestinal bacteria, as described for cattle and sheep, which may have different toxic effects on them depending upon whether it is inhaled by eructation (belching) of the gas (collapse, sudden death) or absorbed via the intestinal tract (sulfhemoglobinemia, dehydration from diarrhea, apparent blindness).
    A method for estimating inorganic sulfur dietary intake in humans, based upon measurement of 24-hour urinary excretion of nitrogen and sulfate, was published.
    Literature Basis:

    International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): Sulfur.
    Kandylis, K.: Toxicology of sulfur in ruminants: review. J. Dairy Sci. 67(10): 2179-2187, 1984.
    Magee, E.A., Curno, R., Edmond, L.M. and Cummings, J.H.: Contribution of dietary protein and inorganic sulfur to urinary sulfate: toward a biomarker of inorganic sulfur intake. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 80(1): 137-142, 2004.
    Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Sulfur. In, Sittig’s Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 2. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 2112-2114.
    Date Last Revised: 08/05/2004

    Monitoring Methods used by OSHA
    Primary Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method (SLC1):

    note: See Particulates Not Otherwise Regulated (Respirable Fraction) and Particulates Not Otherwise Regulated (Total Dust)

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